Will there be some kind of personal traffic (...) own vehicles?
Yes. Have a look at this image
If so, will it be like SimCity 5 where individual citizens choose homes and workplaces every day randomly, or will every citizen have fixed home and workplace?
Fixed. But they can change their home or workplace to optimize the distance between home and workplace. There will be a maximum distance between home and workplace. If distance is higher people will try to move to another home get closer to workplaces.
Also, will there be citizens traveling on foot when it comes to short distances?
If the workplace is close enough people will walk.
And will there be (...) ships (...) belong to private users (...)?
No. I dont think that they are relevant for a game like this.