I've played through 150 years in my slightly-hacked version of 0.3.0 and so far it seems to be working nicely.
Admittedly the 150 years in question were 1900-2050, so I've been using other people's vehicle sets the whole time. Aside from a little bit of bother about mail being replaced with wastelanders all the grfs seemed to work fairly nicely together (other than the aircraft sets, but this is the wrong place to have that conversation). There were a few vehicles (e.g. airplanes) where I had to be very
careful about loading in order to avoid depopulating towns by transporting wastelanders. I screwed up on one town, and despite regular shipments of food, water and building materials it's population had dropped to 13 by the time I noticed (it was somewhere around 200 earlier).
The late-game economic shift caught me entirely by surprise. Around the start of the 21'st century I nearly went broke, which has never happened to me in a TTD game before. A large part of my network was dedicated to long-distance transport of food and water, and I was busy messing about setting up service for some new industries. It took me a year or two to notice that all those expensive trains and aircraft were losing money because the cities they were serving had stopped accepting food water and (in some cases) building materials.
At first I thought this was a bug, then I realized that it was actually you being very, very clever, and that's why the trading post and food lab are configured to serve as fallback destinations for food and water, so:
Unfortunately I just hadn't built my network with that economic shift in mind, so I ended up shutting down half of my rail network for a few months so I could rebuild. I suspect that my next game will involve a great proliferation of conditional order jumps and tracks shared by multiple services.
One odd thing I did notice was that even after growing them to a fairly respectable size, it was nearly impossible for me to turn a profit by transporting passengers. By the end I was using vactrains to haul passengers ~4000 tiles at supersonic speeds, and getting around $2,000,000 annual income against over $8,000,000 in running costs. I think
that this was mainly due to the combination of cargodist and a daylength factor of 2 both reducing the number of passengers available for transport. I might have started making money if I played with lower running costs or just used passenger aircraft until the cities got large enough to support expensive passenger trains (and hack the aircraft sets I'm using so that they can be refitted to just
passengers instead of passengers and wastelanders).
I'm going to try to add my newer industry-growth code into 0.3.1 and spend some time playing it over the weekend. I may even play with the correct vehicles, though I will miss vactrains and road hog.
p.s. I like the new water pump. I know next-to-nothing about art, but it looks to me like it will fit in nicely with a bit of shading and the right background. I'd be tempted to re-name it as a "Water Purifier", but I think that's mostly because I wasted close to $100 on FO3 and it's DLC and am thus emotionally compelled to try to believe that it was a good game.... One might work around that by having the purifier accept a cargo of "water chips" in low volume to increase output.
p.p.s. On the subject of Fallout references, have you considered adding a vault or bunker "industry" to the game? I'm imagining something that would only ever be generated at game start, and initially be non-functional (sealed) and then have a small chance each year to open up and start trading in passengers and high-tech goods of some sort. Graphics-wise it could be as simple as a single tile that's just a normal tunnel-entrance with an armored door drawn over it (look up "Bank Vault" on https://commons.wikimedia.org
for a fair number of public-domain examples)